The pay-per-sale and pay-per-click structures should be pretty obvious. Under a pay-per-lead arrangement, affiliates can get paid even if the merchant doesn’t generate any revenue. In most cases, this would involve earning a commission when a referral starts a free trial to a service. Even if they never pay for that service after the trial expires, the commission is earned.


The implementation of affiliate marketing on the internet relies heavily on various techniques built into the design of many web-pages and websites, and the use of calls to external domains to track user actions (click tracking, Ad Sense) and to serve up content (advertising) to the user. Most of this activity adds time[citation needed] and is generally a nuisance to the casual web-surfer and is seen as visual clutter.[citation needed] Various countermeasures have evolved over time to prevent or eliminate the appearance of advertising when a web-page is rendered. Third party programs (Ad-Aware, Adblock Plus, Spybot, pop-up blockers, etc.) and particularly, the use of a comprehensive HOSTS file can effectively eliminate the visual clutter and the extra time and bandwidth needed to render many web pages. The use of specific entries in the HOSTS file to block these well-known and persistent marketing and click-tracking domains can also aid in reducing a system's exposure to malware by preventing the content of infected advertising or tracking servers to reach a user's web-browser.[citation needed]
By using Internet platforms, businesses can create competitive advantage through various means. To reach the maximum potential of digital marketing, firms use social media as its main tool to create a channel of information. Through this a business can create a system in which they are able to pinpoint behavioral patterns of clients and feedback on their needs.[30] This means of content has shown to have a larger impingement on those who have a long-standing relationship with the firm and with consumers who are relatively active social media users. Relative to this, creating a social media page will further increase relation quality between new consumers and existing consumers as well as consistent brand reinforcement therefore improving brand awareness resulting in a possible rise for consumers up the Brand Awareness Pyramid.[31] Although there may be inconstancy with product images;[32] maintaining a successful social media presence requires a business to be consistent in interactions through creating a two way feed of information; firms consider their content based on the feedback received through this channel, this is a result of the environment being dynamic due to the global nature of the internet.[29] Effective use of digital marketing can result in relatively lowered costs in relation to traditional means of marketing; Lowered external service costs, advertising costs, promotion costs, processing costs, interface design costs and control costs.[32]
As an affiliate for Boatbookings, you will receive 20% of their revenue - effectively meaning your commission will be about 4% of any sales from your referrals.  You also receive 10% of any commissions Boatbookings make on repeat customers who were your referrals. They do have a minimum charter value of 3,000 ($/€/£/etc) before commissions are earned.
Amazon will not pay you unless your affiliate sales reach a threshold of $10 if you choose to be paid by direct bank deposit or Amazon gift card, or $100 if you want to be paid by check. If you fail to reach the threshold, your affiliate balance is carried over to the next month and added to the sales you make then. Amazon pays affiliate sales at net 60 days, so, for example, sales that reach the threshold at the end of January will be paid in late March.
In order to engage customers, retailers must shift from a linear marketing approach of one-way communication to a value exchange model of mutual dialogue and benefit-sharing between provider and consumer.[21] Exchanges are more non-linear, free flowing, and both one-to-many or one-on-one.[5] The spread of information and awareness can occur across numerous channels, such as the blogosphere, YouTube, Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, Pinterest, and a variety of other platforms. Online communities and social networks allow individuals to easily create content and publicly publish their opinions, experiences, and thoughts and feelings about many topics and products, hyper-accelerating the diffusion of information.[22]
To answer this question, you need to find out what your audience’s goals are or what they’re trying to accomplish. That way, you can recommend products that can help them accomplish their goals. The simplest way to decide what your audience wants to achieve is by asking them. You can do this in one or all of the following ways – notice how it’s eerily similar to deciding topics for your content:
Recent corporate changes and folding 2Checkout into a larger company that is involved in payment processing and e-commerce means that the affiliate program can sometimes feel somewhat neglected. But the ability to generate custom coupon codes and the comprehensive knowledge base make 2Checkout a good option for experienced affiliates with an established user base. But if you’re just entering the affiliate field for the first time, 2Checkout might not be where you want to start.
You will not be eligible to receive any Standard Program Fees or Special Program Fees for any month if we determine that your Site is primarily promoting free Kindle eBooks and during that month (i) 20,000 or more free Kindle eBooks are ordered and downloaded during Sessions attributed to your Special Links, and (ii) at least 80% of all Kindle eBooks ordered and downloaded during Sessions attributed to your Special Links are free Kindle eBooks.
1) Gross Profit Margin – This is the first place I start. Clearly you can't offer 50% commissions on items that you only have a 20% profit margin or you'd be out of business fast (and probably in debt). So start by determining your minimum, median, and average gross profit margins on items in your store. You may also want to determine these numbers separately for each category or product type since it's possible to offer different commission rates for each product category, depending on how complex you'd like to make your program. In my experience, the simpler the better when it comes to commission structure, but technically anything's possible.
Never doubt that a group of talented designers and developers who love doing beautiful things together can change the online world. We have been in business for over a decade, and from the very start TemplateMonster has reconsidered how a website gets done through a professional web template. Yes, you can pull off building a site on your own. But we know how to do website design which is powerful enough to get you started, and we can always be within your budget. We give you an affordable template, optimized for SEO and speed performance, and it offers you a vantage of controlling the content, look and functionality of your website. That means you can edit most of it on your own.
Asus Zenfone Max M1 Asus ROG Asus ZenFone Lite L1 Asus Zenfone 5Z Asus Max Pro M2 Asus Max M2 Honor 9N Honor 7S Honor 7A Honor 9 Lite Honor 10 Honor 9i Nokia 5.1 Plus Nokia 6.1 Plus Samsung S8 Samsung Galaxy S7 Edge Samsung Galaxy S7 Samsung Galaxy S8 Samsung Galaxy S8 Plus Samsung Galaxy S9 Samsung Galaxy S9 Plus POCO F1 Lenovo K8 Plus Lenovo K9 Lenovo A5 Oppo F9 Moto One Power Vivo V9 Pro Redmi Note 5 Pro Infinix Note 5 Stylus Phones
The vast majority of affiliate marketing relationships will be established either through a network or through the generic, impersonal interfaces of the companies who have established their own platforms. While the opportunity to generate additional revenue exists if networks are cut out of the picture, the substantial benefits they offer, including administrative responsibilities, makes them a pretty vital part of the affiliate marketing ecosystem.
LinkConnector imposes a very rigorous and lengthy screening process, so you’ll need to prove that you have a high-quality website and established audience before being accepted. Despite its somewhat schizophrenic approach, LinkConnector does have some very happy long-term affiliates. And their “naked links” allow for direct connection to the merchant website without having to be rerouted via LinkConnector, which will give your website an SEO boost.
On the technology-focused forum Hacker News, a user who goes by "graeme" pointed out, "This is likely to have a massive [e]ffect on the blog/article review ecosystem. Most of the review sites that exist today only do so because of [A]mazon's fairly generous programs. I expect in aggregate there will be a shift in what lines of business people decide to get into, based on this." A user called "sharkweek" said that "[a]s an Amazon affiliate who has done quite well with it, this is definitely a gutting." The mood is equally grim on a subreddit for people building affiliate websites.

The “matchmaking” service–offering access to a pool of merchants–is the role of a network that likely comes to mind first. But the administrative workload handled by networks can’t be overlooked; they handle all the tracking, reporting, and payment processing that arises during the steps shown above. While that might not seem like much, it can add up to a significant amount of time each week.

Affiliate marketing is an ideal solution for those looking to gain control of their own income by focusing on performance-based revenue options. Working in tandem with a seller, a motivated affiliate marketer will be able to achieve a passive income from the comfort of their home without worrying about producing their own product or service. Although the success of the job does depend on the affiliate’s marketing skills, it can prove to be an effective way to meet your income goals as either a primary career or a profitable second job.
JVZoo’s strength is that it allows experienced marketers to gain access to product launches and a huge range of online courses while setting up sales funnels and customized landing pages. It’s definitely not for someone who wants to monetize a blog or earn money by having users click through and buy physical products. If you’ve carved out a strong presence online in the marketing space, JVZoo might be a perfect fit.
File-Sharing: Web sites that host directories of music, movies, games and other software. Users upload content to file-hosting sites and then post descriptions of the material and their download links on directory sites. Uploaders are paid by the file-hosting sites based on the number of times their files are downloaded. The file-hosting sites sell premium download access to the files to the general public. The websites that host the directory services sell advertising and do not host the files themselves.
It's deceptive to misrepresent - directly or indirectly - that a product offers a general environmental benefit. Your ads should qualify broad environmental claims - or avoid them altogether - to prevent deception about the specific nature of the benefit. In addition, your ads shouldn't imply significant environmental benefits if the benefit isn't significant. Say a trash bag is labeled "recyclable" without qualification. Because trash bags ordinarily are not separated from other trash for recycling at a landfill or incinerator, it is unlikely that they will be used again. Technically, the bag may be "recyclable," but the claim is deceptive because it asserts an environmental benefit where there is no significant or meaningful benefit.
Affilorama was founded in 2006 by prominent affiliate marketer, Mark Ling. Mark drew on his 8 years experience as an affiliate, product owner, and affiliate program manager to create Affilorama’s first step-by-step video lessons. Since launch, Affilorama has grown to a membership of over 150,000 people worldwide, and now offers free introductory video lessons as well as a range of comprehensive training and tool packages.

The Local Associates Portal, all Promotional Materials, and any other information and content provided to you in connection with the Local Associates Program are included as “Service Offerings” under the Associates Program Operating Agreement. All disclaimers and indemnity obligations under the Associates Program Operating Agreement will apply further to liabilities, claims, damages, losses, costs, and expenses relating to your Recommendations Page and any Local Associates Marks or other data or materials you provide in connection with the Local Associates Program.

It’s important to make the most of your marketing efforts and finding the right placements for the right programs is essential. Our knowledgeable Account Representatives coordinate with each affiliate to create a specialized marketing plan for their platforms. By utilizing our tracking options and learning where programs are performing best, you can concentrate your marketing efforts to optimize your time and increase your profitability.
The License will immediately and automatically terminate if at any time you do not timely comply with any obligation under the Program Documents (as defined in the Fee Schedule), or otherwise upon termination of this Agreement. In addition, we may terminate the License in whole or in part upon written notice to you. You will promptly stop using the Program Content (including PA API and Data Feeds) and promptly remove from your Site and delete or otherwise destroy all of the Program Content and Amazon Marks with respect to which the License is terminated or as we may otherwise request from time to time.

That being said, LinkConnector’s platform looks and feels outdated and is rather clumsily designed. Their dashboard also makes it difficult to find “hot” products or compare conversion rates, leaving affiliates somewhat in the dark about which products to choose. Ironically, despite their low-quality website, they offer some of the best customer service in the affiliate space.

In some ways, trying to establish a direct affiliate marketing relationship with a merchant is a lot like trying to get an advertiser to run a campaign on your site. But there is a major difference here that you should consider when reaching out to establish direct relationships: the biggest hurdle to overcome from the perspective of the merchant isn’t a cash payment (as it is with advertising) but rather an administrative burden.
JVZoo works exclusively with digital products, primarily e-commerce, online courses, and internet marketing offers. Because there are no limits placed on the number of links, buy buttons, or calls to action on a website, JVZoo can sometimes be somewhat low quality both in terms of offers as well as products. Nonetheless, it has proven itself to be a fierce competitor to companies like ClickBank.
This is where we put the “marketing” in affiliate marketing. It’s up to you as the affiliate marketer to make sure that your audience sees the affiliate links and offers you have on your site. You can’t simply throw them into the right sidebar and hope that your audience seeks them out and clicks on them. There’s a great deal that you can do to increase the likelihood that your visitors click on the links and get in front of the affiliate offer.

This License governs your use of Program Content in connection with your participation in the Associates Program. By accepting the Agreement, or by accessing or using the Program Content, including the proprietary application programming interfaces and other tools (collectively, the “PA API”) that permit you to access and use certain types of data, images, text, and other information and content relating to Products (“Product Advertising Content”) which we may make available to you, you agree to be bound by this License.
You must remove from your Site any links and related references to limited time promotions as soon as that promotion on the relevant Amazon Site ends. For example, if you include links to Products in the apparel category of an Amazon Site and mention that there is 15% off select products in Amazon’s apparel category, you must remove the mention of the 15% discount from your Site as soon as the promotion ends.

Amazon will not pay Special Program Fees where a Bounty Event has been disqualified due to a violation or other abuse (for example, registrations made using invalid email addresses, use of bots or automated software, multiple Bounty Events by a single person, repetitive Bounty Events, and Bounty Events that do not result from Special Links on your Site). Amazon will determine in its sole discretion, in each case, whether a Bounty Event has occurred or if there has been a violation or abuse.
CommissionSoup is a division of Bulldog Media Group, which is a leading performance marketing company that specializes in online customer acquisition for clients in the financial services industry. Since 2000, we have focused on financial services digital marketing as our core niche. We take an innovative, strategic approach to our relationships, with the goal of delivering solutions that are tailored to meet each client’s needs. This approach has delivered long-lasting relationships and over one million new customers for our clients each year.

The Publisher is the website who advertises a product or service and earns a commission when their visitor goes on to the site and makes a purchase. There are so many different types of affiliates including influencers, bloggers, or loyalty websites and more non-traditional affiliates too, including paid search, on-site tech solutions and remarketing to name a few.
Although it has a dynamic and well-designed website, PeerFly has a limited range of offers at any given time (around 8,000). On the upside, it does offer good commission/payout rates, lots of FAQs and educational information, and regular contests and reward programs that can substantially increase your bottom line. Based on online customer reviews, Peerfly enjoys a very high reputation amongst participating affiliates.
If you actually use the product and get results with it, then sharing a case study or your personal experience can be one of the most effective ways of selling those products to your audience. As you build a more responsive list of email subscribers and buyers and your reputation, merchants may offer you “free” samples of e-books or other products.
(c)	You will be solely responsible for providing personnel to assist Amazon customers with making purchases through the Local Associates Program. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, you will design a reasonable training program designed to (1) educate your employees about Local Associates Program offerings, (2) use your expertise to assist Amazon customers with evaluating and making purchasing decisions regarding Local Associates Products, and (3) optimize customer experiences with the Local Associates Program. Further, you will implement the training program for all store managers and associates at each Local Associates Facility. With respect to any Amazon customer data received by you or your personnel in connection with purchases of Local Associates Products, you will ensure the security and prompt destruction of such customer data.

We offer a prescription discount program that pay ever time the card is used. You market the card to persons without a medical plan and they will save substantially at there pharmacy on medication. Everyone in the United States can use the card, except the card can’t be used in conjugation with insurance, some times our plan cost is less then the Co-Pays and can be used instead of insurance. The card is reusable with no cost or fees ever. So your offering a program that really can help people with there prescription cost and making a commission also.

It's deceptive to misrepresent - directly or indirectly - that a product offers a general environmental benefit. Your ads should qualify broad environmental claims - or avoid them altogether - to prevent deception about the specific nature of the benefit. In addition, your ads shouldn't imply significant environmental benefits if the benefit isn't significant. Say a trash bag is labeled "recyclable" without qualification. Because trash bags ordinarily are not separated from other trash for recycling at a landfill or incinerator, it is unlikely that they will be used again. Technically, the bag may be "recyclable," but the claim is deceptive because it asserts an environmental benefit where there is no significant or meaningful benefit.


Never doubt that a group of talented designers and developers who love doing beautiful things together can change the online world. We have been in business for over a decade, and from the very start TemplateMonster has reconsidered how a website gets done through a professional web template. Yes, you can pull off building a site on your own. But we know how to do website design which is powerful enough to get you started, and we can always be within your budget. We give you an affordable template, optimized for SEO and speed performance, and it offers you a vantage of controlling the content, look and functionality of your website. That means you can edit most of it on your own.

Subject to the terms of the Agreement and solely for the limited purposes of participation in the Associates Program in strict compliance with the Agreement (including this License and the other Program Policies), we hereby grant you a limited, revocable, non-transferable, non-sublicensable, non-exclusive, royalty-free license to: (a) copy and display Program Content solely on your Site; (b) use only those of the Amazon Marks (as defined in the Trademark Guidelines) we make available to you as part of the Program Content, solely on your Site and in accordance with the Trademark Guidelines, and (c) access and use PA API, Data Feeds, and Product Advertising Content solely in accordance with the Specifications and this License.
We will pay Standard Program Fees and Special Program Fees in the default currency for an Amazon Site approximately 60 days following the end of each calendar month in which they were earned by the method described below that you have selected. You may be permitted to elect to receive payment in a currency other than the default currency for an Amazon Site. If you choose to do so, you agree that the conversion rate will be determined in accordance with Amazon’s operating standards.
Previously known as Affiliate Window but now officially referred to as “AWIN” after acquiring Zanox a few years ago, this network claims to work with over 13,000 active advertisers and 100,000 publishers (affiliates). Founded in Germany, AWIN’s merchants primarily hail from Europe (especially Great Britain) although the U.S. network is growing rapidly. AWIN is currently active in 11 countries.
In June 1998, the FTC issued Online Privacy: A Report to Congress. The Report noted that while over 85 percent of all websites collected personal information from consumers, only 14 percent of the sites in the FTC's random sample of commercial websites provided any notice to consumers of the personal information they collect or how they use it. In May 2000, the FTC issued a follow-up report, Privacy Online: Fair Information Practices in the Electronic Marketplace. While the 2000 survey showed significant improvement in the percent of websites that post at least some privacy disclosures, only 20 percent of the random sample sites were found to have implemented four fair information practices: notice, choice, access and security. Even when the survey looked at the percentage of sites implementing the two critical practices of notice and choice, only 41 percent of the random sample provided such privacy disclosures. You can access the FTC's privacy report at www.ftc.gov.
(i) You will include a date/time stamp adjacent to your display of pricing or availability information on your application if you obtain Product Advertising Content from Data Feeds, or if you call PA API or refresh the Product Advertising Content displayed on your application less frequently than hourly. However, during the same day on which you requested and refreshed the pricing and availability information displayed on your application, you may omit the date portion of the stamp. Examples of acceptable messaging include:
Though the glory days may be behind us, affiliate marketing remains a multi-billion dollar industry and a primary source of income for thousands of successful online entrepreneurs. As the number of merchants embracing affiliate marketing strategies has increased, new opportunities have been created for Web publishers able to build an audience and effectively promote affiliate offers.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, Qualifying Purchases are disqualified whenever they occur in connection with a violation of this Associates Program Fee Statement or any other terms, conditions, specifications, statements, and policies that we may issue from time to time that apply to the Associates Program, including the most up-to-date version of the Agreement (collectively, the “Program Documents”).

Affiliate marketing also is a very broad term; under this umbrella there are several different strategies that can be employed to generate affiliate revenue. The most appropriate and lucrative method (or methods) can depend on a number of factors, including your site’s niche and characteristics of your audience. Below is an overview of some of the most popular affiliate marketing implementations, along with examples of each. Click here to read more about the proven affiliate marketing strategies.


(a) Promotional Materials. Amazon may from time to time provide you with a standard form template and other marketing assets for use in promotional marketing materials (“Promotional Materials”), subject to the limited license in Section 4(b) of this policy. Amazon reserves the right to review your Promotional Materials at any time for compliance with this Local Associates Policy. Any failure by you to provide the Promotional Materials in accordance with our request will constitute a material breach of this Local Associates Policy.
Similarly, voucher code sites can be classified as an affiliate group and can deliver high sales volumes. If a voucher code is issued then it is possible to set up a commission rate that is lower to offset the fact that you will already be taking a hit on margins to offer a discount (again, consultation with relevant affiliates will allow you to make a more informed judgment).
So, the maximum of what you can pay out in commission to the rep that brought in this new client, and break even, is $240. Of course, you’d never pay this much. Almost all merchants pay a commission that’s based on a percentage of the sale, not the LTV. But knowing your ceiling is the first step in calculating the payouts you can afford to set with your affiliate partners.
You will use Program Content solely in accordance with the terms of the Agreement and within the express scope of the license granted herein. Without limiting the foregoing, you will (a) use Program Content solely to send end users and sales to an Amazon Site and will not link any Program Content to, or in conjunction with any Program Content, direct traffic to any page of a site other than an Amazon Site (however, parts of your Site that are not closely associated with the Program Content may contain links to sites other than an Amazon Site) and (b) link each use of the Program Content solely to the related Product detail page or other relevant page of an Amazon Site and not to any other page.
Earning income via Target affiliates, however, requires a bit of work. Cookies expire in just seven days, and commissions can be as low as just one percent, so you’ll need to be operating a high-traffic website in order to make serious cash with this program. But with Target’s much-beloved brand reputation and vast catalog, relevant product links can be a big earner for established influencers.
Digital marketing methods such as search engine optimization (SEO), search engine marketing (SEM), content marketing, influencer marketing, content automation, campaign marketing, data-driven marketing,[6] e-commerce marketing, social media marketing, social media optimization, e-mail direct marketing, display advertising, e–books, and optical disks and games are becoming more common in our advancing technology. In fact, digital marketing now extends to non-Internet channels that provide digital media, such as mobile phones (SMS and MMS), callback, and on-hold mobile ring tones.[7] In essence, this extension to non-Internet channels helps to differentiate digital marketing from online marketing, another catch-all term for the marketing methods mentioned above, which strictly occur online.
4. Sales incentives. Structure your commission rates so that you have additional margin to offer sales incentives. For example, perhaps you are launching a new product line and you want affiliates to focus their marketing efforts on it. If you have room in your commission structure, you can offer a temporary increase — or perhaps sales bonuses — for hitting established revenue targets. I addressed sales incentives here previously, in “Affiliate Marketing: 3 Incentives to Drive Sales.”
If you read through you’ll see in depth, how they use the tool – Ahrefs – to achieve their goals for their blog(s). Also, they mention what they don’t like about the product upfront, and even though it’s not a lot, it adds credibility to the review since there’s hardly a perfect product. Embedding a video tutorial also makes it easier for others who may prefer to consume audio-visual content.

CommissionSoup is a division of Bulldog Media Group, which is a leading performance marketing company that specializes in online customer acquisition for clients in the financial services industry. Since 2000, we have focused on financial services digital marketing as our core niche. We take an innovative, strategic approach to our relationships, with the goal of delivering solutions that are tailored to meet each client’s needs. This approach has delivered long-lasting relationships and over one million new customers for our clients each year.


As Target is the second-largest general retailer in the United States, their affiliate program is primarily for American bloggers or publishers who can route visitors to relevant products. Overall, the program works much like Amazon’s does in that publishers (bloggers) get a small commission on sales, but Target’s gigantic product base (over one million items) and high brand recognition make their affiliate program a great option for influencers.
He is the owner of jeffbullas.com. Forbes calls him a top influencer of Chief Marketing Officers and the world's top social marketing talent. Entrepreneur lists him among 50 online marketing influencers to watch. Inc.com has him on the list of 20 digital marketing experts to follow on Twitter. Oanalytica named him #1 Global Content Marketing Influencer. BizHUMM ranks him as the world's #1 business blogger. Learn More
It’s important to make the most of your marketing efforts and finding the right placements for the right programs is essential. Our knowledgeable Account Representatives coordinate with each affiliate to create a specialized marketing plan for their platforms. By utilizing our tracking options and learning where programs are performing best, you can concentrate your marketing efforts to optimize your time and increase your profitability.
It takes a particular personality to feel comfortable with such a working style. In some circumstances, it can result in feeling blue like loneliness or stagnation. But there are ways to minimize and overcome such a mental condition.Just don’t close yourself away from people at your home. Find your working space somewhere outside and go there every day.

In order to engage customers, retailers must shift from a linear marketing approach of one-way communication to a value exchange model of mutual dialogue and benefit-sharing between provider and consumer.[21] Exchanges are more non-linear, free flowing, and both one-to-many or one-on-one.[5] The spread of information and awareness can occur across numerous channels, such as the blogosphere, YouTube, Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, Pinterest, and a variety of other platforms. Online communities and social networks allow individuals to easily create content and publicly publish their opinions, experiences, and thoughts and feelings about many topics and products, hyper-accelerating the diffusion of information.[22]
You will register for and be assigned a unique URL associated with an Associate ID for your participation in the Local Associates Program. You will not use any alternative URL or Associate IDs in connection with the Local Associates Program or use the assigned URL or Associate ID for any other purpose. For purposes of this Local Associates Policy, your unique URL will be considered a Special Link as defined in the Associates Program Operating Agreement.

Affiliate marketing overlaps with other Internet marketing methods to some degree, because affiliates often use regular advertising methods. Those methods include organic search engine optimization (SEO), paid search engine marketing (PPC – Pay Per Click), e-mail marketing, content marketing, and (in some sense) display advertising. On the other hand, affiliates sometimes use less orthodox techniques, such as publishing reviews of products or services offered by a partner.[citation needed]
×